Toulouse [tu lu ː z], city in southern France, capital of the region Occitanie and administrative center of the Haute-Garonne, 146 m above sea level, on the Garonne and the Canal du Midi, in the fertile valley between the Pyrenees and the Massif Central, 475 000 residents (agglomeration 1.04 million residents);Archbishopric; University (founded 1229), Polytechnic, Institut Catholique (founded 1877); Spatial research center Lespinet with a university for aeronautics and a civil aviation school; Veterinary college, several engineering schools, etc. Technical schools; medical research institutes, research institutes for electro-optics and others; Observatory; Art, Archaeological and Folklore Museum, Space Museum, Museum of Egyptian and Asian Art; Theatre; Radio station; Académie des Jeux Floraux (poetry academy). Toulouse has an exchange and organizes trade fairs; important transshipment point for agricultural products. Toulouse received decisive economic impetus from the relocation of the French defense and aviation industries after the First World War and the space industry after the Second World War; associated with this is an important supplier industry, especially electronics; The second most important branch of the economy is the chemical industry, for which natural gas from Lacq forms the raw material basis; this is followed by the traditional branches of the textile, leather, furniture and metal processing industries. The Canal du Midi is only of touristic importance; Blagnac airport. Leather, furniture and metal processing industries. The Canal du Midi is only of touristic importance; Blagnac airport. Leather, furniture and metal processing industries. The Canal du Midi is only of touristic importance; Blagnac airport.
In the old town is the Capitol, built between 1750 and 1960, the former seat of the magistrate, now the Hôtel de Ville and theater. The Gothic church Notre-Dame-du-Taur was built in the 14th century with a bell tower typical of southern France. The Romanesque basilica of Saint-Sernin (late 11th-13th centuries, in the 19th century by E.-E. Viollet-le-Duc restored) is a monumental pilgrimage church on the pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela (excellent architectural decorations, especially Porte Miégeville, early 12th century). The Gothic Église des Jacobins (13th / 14th century) belongs to the former Jacobin monastery, and frescoes from the 14th century in the Saint-Antonin chapel. The Saint-Étienne cathedral (11th – 17th centuries) has an important Gothic nave (early 13th century), stained glass windows from the 14th – 16th centuries. Century and tapestries from the 16th to 18th centuries Century. In the former Augustinian monastery, the Musée des Augustins with Romanesque architectural sculptures (around 1140). Near the Garonne is the baroque church of Notre-Dame-la-Daurade (18th century). Several palaces from the Renaissance and Baroque periods (now some museums). – 3 km to the south is G. Candilis’s 1964–77 Toulouse-Le Mirail satellite city built for 100,000 residents .
Toulouse, the Gallo-Roman Tolosa, suburb of the Celtic Volcae Tectosages (Volken) was the 3rd century bishop’s residence (since 1317 Archbishop’s seat); In 418 it became the capital of the Tolosan Empire of the Visigoths, 507 Frankish. The county of Toulouse was an important part of the Carolingian sub-kingdom of Aquitaine, which had existed since 781. The counts of Toulouse lost the battle for the ducal dignity of Aquitaine in the 10th century against the counts of Poitou, but nevertheless rose to become powerful lords in southern France, whose territory stretched between the Garonne and the Rhône, with a focus on Toulouse and Avignon. In the middle of the 12th century Toulouse became one of the centers of the Albigensian movement and was conquered (1209-18) by an army of crusaders under S. de Montfort and (1226) by royal troops. In 1271 the county of Toulouse fell to the French crown, but retained special rights until 1779.