Slovak music, music in the territory of today’s Slovak Republic.
Slovak music has always been strong as an independent folk music. The tradition of the chorale begins in the 12th century, a local repertoire of sequences, hymns, tropes is for the 14th / 15th centuries. Century attested. The secular mediaeval music care centered around the figure of the minstrel (Igric). Archaic forms of sacred polyphony (organa, conductus, also motets) prevailed up to the 16th century, alongside the adoption of Italian, German and Dutch works. In the 17th century, Slovak music caught up with the baroque achievements of western countries (figured bass, solo and multi-choir concerts); A national moment (folk and dance song arrangements) asserted itself particularly in instrumental music. The music of the Viennese classical music was well received in the cities and in the castles of Slovakia; Own chamber and orchestral music, operas, ballets and church music were also created, among others. from Anton Zimmermann (* 1741, † 1781) and Georg Družecký (* 1745, † 1819). The strengthening of the Slovak national consciousness promoted the development of Slovak national music against the background of musical romanticism (most important Slovak representative Ján Levoslav Bella, * 1843, † 1936) in the 19th century. The songs by Mikuláš Schneider-Trnavský (* 1881, † 1958), the chamber and orchestral music by Mikuláš Moyzes (* 1872, † 1944), the first Slovak national opera, »Detvan« (1924), by Viliam Figuš- Bystrý (* 1875, † 1937) as well as the chamber music by Frico Kafenda (* 1883, † 1963) and Alexander Albrecht (* 1885, † 1958).
The constitution of the first Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 and the national liberation of the Slovaks repeatedly gave new impulses for a rich musical culture: founding of the first Slovak Conservatory (1919), the Opera House (1920), the Slovak Philharmonic (1949), the Music Academy (1949). Contemporary Slovak music originates from Alexander Moyzes (* 1906, † 1984), E. Suchoň and J. Cikker. A second generation tried to find a synthesis between the new music of the first half of the 20th century and the national Slovak traditions, among others. František Babušek (* 1905, † 1954), Šimon Jurovský (* 1911, † 1963), Andrej Očenáš (* 1911, † 1995), Ladislav Holoubek (* 1913, † 1994), Jozef Kresánek (* 1913, † 1986), Dezider Kardoš (* 1914, † 1991), Tibor Fresšo (* 1918, † 1987), Oto Ferenczy (* 1921, † 2000), Ján Zimmer (* 1926, † 1993). In addition to the continuation of romantic and neoclassical tendencies, a third generation is looking to catch up with avant-garde developments, including: Ladislav Burlas (* 1927), Ivan Hrušovský (* 1927, † 2001), Roman Berger (* 1930), Miroslav Bázlik (* 1931), Juraj Pospíšil (* 1931, † 2007), Ilja Zeljenka (* 1932, † 2007), Jozef Malovec (* 1933, † 1998), Dušan Martinček (* 1936, † 2006), Ivan Parík (* 1936, † 2005), L. Kupkovič, Peter Kolman (* 1937), Juraj Hatrík (* 1941). The younger generation of composers include Martin Burlas (* 1955), Wladimir Godár (* 1956), Peter Breiner (* 1957), Peter Martinček (* 1962) and Daniel Matej (* 1963).
After the Second World War, jazz also gained greater importance, which led to the founding of numerous combos and orchestras; These include the Bratislava Big Band, the Meditation Jazz Trio and the ASH Band. Since the 1960s, rock music has also appeared in public with groups such as Metronom, Collegium Musicum, Electric Blues Band and Metalinda.
Orthodox Church in the Czech countries and Slovakia
Orthodox Church in the Czech countries and Slovakia, the Orthodox Church in the Czech and Slovak Republics; The seat of the head of the church, the “Archbishop of Prague and Metropolitan of the Czech Lands and Slovakia”, is Prague; liturgical languages are Church Slavonic, Czech, Slovak and Ukrainian; The training center is the »Orthodox Theological Faculty« in Prešov. The church has an estimated 75,000 believers in four eparchies; since 1993 it has existed in the structure of two autonomous particular Churches (in the Czech and Slovak Republics) linked by a common head in canonical communion. The head of the church has been Metropolitan Rastislav (Gont, * 1978) since February 2014. – The church arose in the 19th century in connection with the political idea of Pan-Slavism; it began with an Orthodox church in Prague (1863), founded by a group of politicians who had converted to the Orthodox faith. After the founding of the Czechoslovak Republic (1918), another Orthodox Church was constituted. One church submitted to the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the other to the Serbian Patriarchate. The Soviet annexation of Carpathian Ukraine (1944) reduced the number of Orthodox in Czechoslovakia. After the Second World War, the Orthodox Church became the exarchate of the Moscow Patriarchate and was awarded autocephaly by Moscow in 1951.
Slovak Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession
Slovak Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession, Lutheran Church in the Slovak Republic, goes back to the Evangelical Church, which was formed with the introduction of the Lutheran Reformation in Slovakia since the end of the 16th century and at the Synods of Žilina (1610), Spišské Podhradie (1614) and Ružomberok (1707). Suppressed in the wake of the Counter-Reformation, the faithful could only after the enactment of Joseph II’s patent of tolerance . (1781) again form parishes of the Augsburg (Lutheran) Confession. The reconstitution as an independent Slovak Lutheran Church was only possible after 1918 and took place in 1921. The leading clergy are the Bishop General and two district bishops. The seat of the central ecclesiastical organs (General Bishop’s Office, General Presbytery and General Board) is in Bratislava. With around 372,800 members (last status: 2011 census), the S. E. K. A. B. is the Slavic Protestant church with the largest number of members.
Bratislava (German Pressburg), capital of the Slovak Republic, on the Danube, with (2018) 432 900 residents.
As the seat of several universities, the National Theater and the National Museum, Bratislava is the country’s cultural center. The industry (petrochemicals, vehicle construction, etc.) shows relatively high growth rates. Bratislava has a Danube port and an international airport.
The city’s landmark is the four-tower castle over the Danube. Also worth seeing are the Old Town Hall (15th century), the Gothic St. Martin’s Cathedral, the Primate’s Palace (18th century) and the numerous Renaissance and Baroque houses.
Bratislava was first mentioned in documents in 907 and elevated to the status of a city in 1217. From 1541–1784 it was the capital and coronation city of Hungary.