Science and Culture of Indonesia

Science and Culture of Indonesia

According to the Ministry of National Education, in the 2000/01 school year, 1.129 million teachers taught 25.7 million students in 148,964 schools. There were 918.6 thousand students and 52 thousand teachers in 76 state universities and higher schools, 1.8 million students and 142 thousand teachers in 1670 private higher educational institutions. 72.5 thousand students studied in 14 Muslim institutes (except for Aceh and Moluccas).

Main scientific centers: Indonesian Research Institute, which performs a number of functions of the Academy of Sciences, Indonesian University, Gaja Mada University, Bogor Institute of Technology. The coordinating role in the development of science and technology is played by the Ministry of State Scientific Research and Technology, the Agency for the Development of Strategic Industries, the National Research Council, and the Center for the Development of Science and Technology. A Strategic Program for the Development of National Science and Technology for 2000-04 was adopted, the main task of which is to improve socio-economic indicators and overcome the backlog of Indonesia in science and technology.

According to Andyeducation, the all-Indonesian culture was formed on the basis of the richest heritage of original cultures of hundreds of nationalities and ethnic units. Its formation and development were inextricably linked with the struggle for independence, which was reflected in the formation of national identity and a single nation. A characteristic feature of Indonesian culture is a fruitful synthesis of cultural heritage and creative perception of world culture. The galaxy of Indonesian prose writers, poets, playwrights includes Sutan Takdir, Amin Hamzah, H. Anwar, Utui Tantang Sontani, Armain, Sanusi Pane, Ivan Simatupang, Umar Khayam, Putu Vijaya, Sontani, Aip Rosidi, Rendra and many others. The younger generation includes Gunavan Muhamad, Taufik Ismail. The classic of Indonesian literature is the writer Pramudya Ananta Tur.

In painting, the founder and classic of which is Raden Saleh, the realistic direction dominates. He is represented by Heng Ngatung, Sudarsono, S. Sujoyono, Hendra Gunawan, Suparto. The painter Dulakh gravitates toward impressionism. Expressionism is typical for the late works of H. Gunavan, Basuki Resobovo.

There is an Academy of Fine Arts in Jakarta. Since the 1980s creative unions of artists, sculptors and architects expanded. A variety of symbolic, formalistic currents appear, the penetration of Western culture and art is expanding.

General information about Jordan

The official name is the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (Al Mamlaka al Urduniah al Hashimiyah, The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan). Located in western Asia, in the northwest of the Arabian Peninsula. The area is 89,213 km2, the population is 5.323 million people. (2002 estimate). The official language is Arabic. The capital is Amman (about 1.6 million people, 2001). Public holiday – Independence Day May 25 (since 1946). The monetary unit is the Jordanian dinar (subdivided into 100 qirsh).

Member of the UN (since 1955) and many of its specialized organizations, the Arab League (since 1945), the WTO (since 2000), etc.

Education of Indonesia