Science and Culture of Egypt

Science and Culture of Egypt

According to Educationvv, Egypt has a system of compulsory free education at all levels. Primary and secondary education for children from 6 to 17 years old (primary – 5 years, secondary education – 6 years). The system of private schools and colleges is also developed. In 1996, 88% of children were enrolled in primary and secondary education (94% of boys and 82% of girls). There are 14 universities in the country. The most famous are Cairo, Ain Sham, American University in Cairo. In Egypt, there are a number of educational institutions in which education is conducted with an emphasis on the study of Islam. They operate under the direction of Al-Azhar University.

In the 1999/2000 budget, 16% of all expenditures were allocated to education. According to the results of the 1996 census, the adult illiteracy rate was 38.6% (against 49.6% in 1986). In 1998 this figure was 37.6%.

There are dozens of research institutes in Cairo, the Academy of Sciences, musical and theater societies, the Higher Ballet School, and the Academy of Fine Arts. The Egyptian National Museum, the museums of Luxor and Aswan, the Egyptian National Library are world famous. In 2003, the recreated famous Alexandrian Library was opened.

Egypt is considered the recognized center of Arab culture. Modern Egyptian theater, Egyptian cinematography, Egyptian composers (Abd al-Wahab, Farid al-Atrash, Ahmed Saad-ad-din and others), singers (Umm Kulthum and others), Egyptian writers, incl. laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature Naguib Mahfuz, Yusef Sibai, Mahmoud Teymur and others. 19th century the first professional drama theater troupes arose.


Tourism is an important source of hard currency for the treasury. Therefore, the Egyptian authorities encourage its development. Tourism has become one of the most dynamic sectors of the economy. In order to increase its profitability back in the 1990s. the authorities handed over the management of several state-owned hotels to international groups. Laws were also passed restricting land speculation, liberalization was carried out in the field of air travel for tourists. However, the development of tourism sometimes becomes a hostage to the political situation in the region. So, in 1997, a heavy blow to the industry was caused by the actions of terrorists from radical Islamic organizations, incl. attack on a German tourist bus in Cairo in September 1997, which killed 9 German tourists, a terrorist attack in Luxor, which claimed the lives of 58 tourists and 4 Egyptians. The authorities are taking tough measures to curb the activities of terrorists and to provide additional protection for foreign tourists (escorting buses by police forces, etc.). In recent years, there has been a new revival in the field of tourism. Active construction of new hotels and resorts is underway, historical monuments are being restored and opened for tourists. The number of foreign tourists is constantly increasing: 1986 1.3 million, 1990 2.5 million, 1996 3.9 million, 2001 5.8 million people. By 2010, Egypt intends to receive up to 10 million foreign tourists annually. Distribution of tourists by country (2000-01): total number 5.8 million, of which European countries 3.8 million (Western Europe – 403 thousand, Eastern Europe – 3.4 million), Middle Eastern countries 1.2 million, Africa 162 thousand, America 348 thousand, Asia and Oceania 310 thousand

Since May 1991, Egypt has been implementing a program to stabilize finances and the economy. In the beginning. 1990s Western countries, in gratitude for the position taken by Egypt during the Kuwait crisis, reduced by 50% its external debt, which amounted to St. $50 billion. In 2000, the volume of Egypt’s external debt was $26.7 billion (in 1999, $28 billion).

The implementation of the structural adjustment programs agreed with the IMF and the World Bank, despite serious difficulties, has yielded positive results. It was possible to reduce inflation, reduce the state budget deficit, reduce the cost of subsidizing prices for industrial goods and food. K ser. 1994, price subsidies were abolished or significantly reduced throughout the public sector, and a timetable was set for the elimination of the remaining subsidies. In 1992, the convertibility of the Egyptian national currency was introduced. In October 1995, the IMF withdrew its objections to the Egyptian government’s exchange rate policy for the Egyptian pound.

The government has outlined a broad program of privatization of state-owned enterprises and companies. By 1998, out of 314 public sector firms, 113 had become privately owned. In 1998–99, the government began privatizing another 68 firms, including one of the largest state-owned banks, Telecom Egypt, insurance and energy firms. A law has been passed allowing for easier automatic registration of new businesses.

In 2000 inflation was 2.6%. The state budget deficit is 3.6 billion US dollars. The balance of payments was reduced to a negative balance of 1.2 billion US dollars. Domestic debt $66.9 billion. Gold and foreign exchange reserves 13.9 billion US dollars (in 1999 16.4 billion). The main sources of foreign exchange (billion dollars): private transfers of Egyptians working abroad – approx. 3.7 (abroad from 2 to 3 million Egyptians), tourism income 4.3, receipts from the Suez Canal – 1.8.

Education of Egypt