The urban area of Munich was already settled in the younger Neolithic. Since the 5th century BC The area of today’s Munich belonged to the area of the Celtic Vindeliker. In Roman times, two important streets touched today’s urban area: One crossed the Isar near Oberföhring, coming from Wels, and merged with one leading from Kempten to Augsburg. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for acronyms about Munich.
Even before the actual establishment (1158) of the planned Munich, a settlement Munichen (“with the monks”) had existed. The history of the Vorwelfischen settlement core is still unclear. According to excavation findings (after 1945), the forerunner of the parish church of Sankt Peter dates from the middle of the 11th century.
Duke Heinrich the Lion of Bavaria and Saxony had destroyed the Freising customs bridge in Oberföhring in 1157/58 (or later) and relocated the market there to Munich, upstream of the Isar, in return for compensation, which caused a dispute between Heinrich and Bishop Otto von Freising. In his arbitration at the Reichstag in Augsburg (June 14, 1158), Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa approved the abolition of the market, coin and bridge in the episcopal Oberföhring, but stipulated that the bishop should receive a third of the coin and customs revenue from Munich. This tax went to Freising until 1803, then to the Bavarian state until 1852. After Heinrich was ostracizedIn 1180 Munich came first to the diocese of Freising, in 1240 after serious disputes to the Wittelsbacher (since 1255 capital of the partial duchy of Bavaria-Munich, from 1505 of the entire duchy of Bavaria). In 1280 the city was given generous freedom of trade by King Rudolf I of Habsburg. Munich received its first city charter in 1294. The imperial city colors black and yellow go back to Emperor Ludwig IV, the Bavarian. He also gave the city the second city charter. City expansion is associated with it. Marsilius of Padua and Wilhelm von Ockham, the supporters of Ludwig of Bavaria in a dispute with the Curia, were active in Munich at that time.
An external and an internal council can be identified since 1317/18. Duke Maximilian I made Munich the center of Catholicism in Germany (in 1609 the Catholic League was founded in Munich). The Thirty Years War (1618–48) brought Munich to an economic low. After the city was handed over to Gustav II Adolf without a fightfrom Sweden (1632) a high war contribution had to be paid. Occupied by Austrian troops until 1715 after the defeat of Höchstädt (1704) in the War of the Spanish Succession, in 1705 the population rose up against the Austrians in the “Sendlinger Murder Christmas”. During the War of the Austrian Succession, Munich was occupied by Austrian troops with interruptions between 1742 and 1744. Numerous churches and monasteries were founded between 1600 and 1750.
In 1801 the naturalization ban for Protestants was lifted, in 1802/03 the courts and police were nationalized, and in 1810 the magistrate was lifted. From 1818 Munich had self-government again (with two mayors and two councils). In 1818 Munich, the capital of the Kingdom of Bavaria since 1806, also became the seat of the Archbishop of Munich and Freising. Under King Ludwig I (1825–48) it developed into a center for the arts and artists, and under Maximilian II Joseph (1848–64) it became a foster home for the sciences. Ludwig II. (1864–86) particularly promoted the music of R. Wagner. In the 19th century, scholars (J. von Görres, J. von Liebig, M. von Pettenkofer, F. X. von Baader, I. von Döllinger, J. A. Möhler and others), technicians (J. von Fraunhofer, G. von Reichenbach, A. Senefelder), the stenographer F. X. Gabelsberger and many painters (M. von Schwind, C. . Spitzweg and others). Economy and technology as well as the brewing trade flourished. The first locomotive was built in Munich in 1841. Under Prince Regent Luitpold (1886–1912), the city experienced an economic and cultural boom. The Schwabing districtbecame an artists’quarteraround 1900.
In November 1918 Munich became the capital of the Free State of Bavaria proclaimed by K. Eisner; the communist Munich Soviet Republic proclaimed after Eisner’s assassination on April 7, 1919, from April 27 under E. Toller (USPD), only existed for a short time (suppression by Freikorps troops under F. X. Ritter von Epp, May 1–3. 1919; over 600 dead). The NSDAP emerged from the “German Workers’ Party” founded in Munich in 1919 (re-established in 1925). On November 9, 1923, the Hitler putsch failed in front of the Feldherrnhalle; Munich soon became the center of National Socialism (NS officially “Capital of the Movement”). After the meeting in Munich on September 29, 1938, the Munich Agreement between the German Empire, Great Britain, France and Italy. On 8 11 1939 “Bürgerbräu” -Keller failed assassination attempt of the individual offender G. Elser on A. Hitler; Munich students contributed with leafleting 1942-43 resistance against the Nazi regime (White Rose).
After almost half of the city was destroyed in the Second World War, the historic old town was particularly difficult (bombings from 1940, especially 1943 and January 7/8, 1945), the population exceeded the million mark in 1957 (1850: 89,000, 1900: 490,000, 1939: 824,000, 1945: 479,000).
In the summer of 1972 (August 26th to September 11th), Munich was the venue for the XX. Summer Olympics (Olympic Games). On September 5, 1972, Palestinian terrorists (” Black September “) carried out an assassination attempt on the Israeli Olympic team, which sparked worldwide outrage; During an unsuccessful rescue operation at Fürstenfeldbruck airport on the night of September 5th to 6th, all nine hostages died (a total of twelve fatalities, including a German police officer). Nevertheless, the games continued after an interruption on September 5th and a memorial service on September 6th.