Geography and Culture of Havana, Cuba

Geography and Culture of Havana, Cuba

Havana Bay

The bay of Havana is one of the largest and safest bays in America and the world, in the form of a bag, which gives security to the ships it welcomes. It has a strategic geographical and economic situation, as it is located in the middle of the GulfCorridor, an area that connects the ports of Veracruz, New Orleans and Miami as well as the Mississippi delta with Europe. Inside was the US battleship Maine exploded the 15 as February as 1898, a fact that meant the pretext for the United Statesintervened in the War of 95, also known as the Necessary War, snatching the victory from the Mambisa hosts and starting the Spanish-Cuban-American war, which constituted the first conflagration of an imperialist type.

According to ACT Test Centers, the port of Havana is considered one of the most important in the region and during colonial times one of the strategic centers for colonial Spain, which is why the bay was protected with a very important network of fortifications, which include the Torreón of San Lázaro, the Castle of the Three Kings of Morro, the Fortress of San Carlos de la Cabaña, the Castle of Atarés, La Chorrera and other elements dedicated to the protection of the port and the city.

Entrance of the bay of Havana in April 2012, in the distance the Simón Bolívar School Ship of the Venezuelan Navy.

One of the distinctive elements associated with the bay is the lighthouse located in the El Morro fortress, whose construction dates from the 18th century, and which currently works with French optics, which were installed at the time of its construction, including the mechanisms original counterweight and levers for its operation, being the lighting system (currently electric), the only significant change made to this work.

Today one of the fundamental challenges of the bay is to overcome its high levels of pollution that make it one of the most polluted bays in the world, not only due to the high concentration of population on its coastline (close to a million people) but also Most of the city’s industries are located in the bay area, so most of its waste ends up at sea.

Despite everything, the government and several Cuban and international scientific institutions have promoted a great rescue plan for the bay, which seeks through educational formulas to instill values ​​of respect for the environment.

Flora and fauna

Due to its proximity to the Tropic of Cancer, temperatures are pleasant all year round. The vegetation is abundant, highlighting the green ring of the city of which the Great Metropolitan Park of Havana is part, in the Almendares basin, and which covers areas of four municipalities: Playa, Plaza de la Revolución, Cerro and Marianao. Within this park, the Havana Forest, the Forest Park, the Almendares Park, and the El Husillo dam stand out. The National Zoo, the Parque Lenin, Expocuba and the National Botanical Garden, part of the forest encirclement of the city.

There are areas of an impressive natural landscape such as the banks of the upper course of the Cojímar River, the Itabo Lagoon, Rincón de Guanabo and the Coca area. Several peripheral municipalities are characterized by their greenery: East Havana, Guanabacoa, Cotorro, San Miguel del Padrón, Arroyo Naranjo, Boyeros, Plaza de la Revolución, La Lisa, Marianao and Playa. This characteristic has made Havana a “Garden City”.

This region of the country has several endemic species of plants. The fauna is made up of birds, reptiles and mammals; in addition to others brought by man such as large and small livestock, breeding birds, domestic dogs and cats, and others. Within the historical-cultural heritage thirty-eight national monuments, six local monuments and eleven protection zones are recognized today, between the built and natural heritage.


The city is host to several international cultural events such as the Havana Ballet Festival, the Havana Film Festival, the Jazz Plaza Festival and the International Book Fair.

Hometown of the National Hero José Martí, and known as the key to the New World and the West Indies for its strategic location, it serves as one of the most important cities in Latin America for events located in the Gulf of Mexico area.

In the city there is also the Casa de las Américas, an institution in charge of promoting the art and literature of the peoples of the Americas, from the Rio Grande to Patagonia, and which annually sponsors a literary contest known as Casa de las Américas or, and of which distinguished personalities such as Gabriel García Márquez and Mario Benedetti have been jury.

There are buildings that are a sample of decorative arts such as the Bacardi Building, the first art deco building built in Havana, an architectural jewel of the time.

Political and administrative regions of Cuba

Cuba has a total of fifteen provinces and 168 municipalities, including the special municipality of Isla de la Juventud.

  • Pinewood of the riverSagebrush
  • Isle of Youth
  • Havana
  • Mayabeque
  • Killings
  • Hundred fires
  • Villa Clara
  • Sancti Spíritus
  • Ciego de Avila
  • Camaguey
  • Las Tunas
  • Holguin
  • Granma
  • Santiago de Cuba
  • Guantanamo

In August 2010, the National Assembly of People’s Power approved a new modification to the political-administrative division. The provinces of Havana, Pinar del Río and the Matanzas municipalities of Varadero, Matanzas and Cárdenas ; and the Guantanamo Manuel Tames, Yateras and Guantánamo, would be subject to changes. [47]

The approved Law proposed the creation of two provinces, based on the territory of the province of Havana and the incorporation of the municipalities of Bahía Honda, Candelaria and San Cristóbal, belonging to Pinar del Río. The new provinces are called Artemisa and Mayabeque.

The Cuban State is institutionally structured as follows:

  • Representative Institutions:
    • National Assembly of People’s Power
    • Council of State of the Republic of Cuba
    • Council of Ministers of the Republic of Cuba
  • Administrative Institutions:
    • Executive Committee of the Council of Ministers
    • Bodies of the Central State Administration
  • Defense Institutions:
    • Ministry of the Revolutionary Armed Forces
    • Ministry of Interior
  • Judicial and Fiscal Institutions:
    • People’s Supreme Court
    • Attorney General of the Republic of Cuba

Culture of Havana, Cuba